Accuracy is the ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity.
Components of Motor Fitness
Accuracy is the ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity.
Agility is the ability to apply explosive movements to rapidly change directions.
Balance is the ability to exercise precise control over the body's position and movement.
Tancred (1995) believes that: One of the misconceptions in the sports world is that a sports person gets in shape by just playing or taking part in his/her chosen sport. If a stationary level of performance, consistent ability in executing a few limited skills is your goal, then engaging only in your sport will keep you there. However, if you want the utmost efficiency, consistent improvement, and balanced abilities sportsmen and women must participate in year round conditioning programs. The bottom line in sports conditioning and fitness training is stress, not mental stress, but adaptive body stress. Sportsmen and women must put their bodies under a certain amount of stress (overload) to increase physical capabilities."
The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its constitution of 1948 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".
Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of a physical task.
Basic fitness can be classified in four main components: strength, speed, stamina and flexibility. However, exercise scientists have identified nine components that comprise the definition of fitness (Tancred 1995):
Of all the nine elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation.
Physical fitness refers to the capacity of an athlete to meet the varied physical demands of their sport without reducing the athlete to a fatigued state. The components of physical fitness are (Davis 2000):
Motor Fitness refers to the ability of an athlete to perform successfully at their sport. The components of motor fitness are (Davis 2000):
Identify the most important fitness components for success in your sport or event and then design sport/event specific conditioning and training programs that will enhance these fitness components and energy systems.
The following are examples of general conditioning exercises:
Not convinced on the benefits of a regular training regime then have a read of the the benefits of exercising page.
Visit the general fitness training program page to get an insight into a simple weekly training program that will help develop your general level of fitness.
|Fitness Component||Recognised Test|
|Agility||Illinois Agility Test|
|Balance||Standing Stork Test|
|Body Composition||Skinfold measures|
|Cardiovascular Endurance||Multistage Fitness Test|
|Flexibility||Sit & Reach test|
|Muscular Endurance||NCF Abdominal Conditioning Test|
|Power||Standing Long Jump or Vertical Jump|
|Speed||30 metre Sprint|
In their research Suni et al. (1996) found that the following tests appeared to provide acceptable reliability as methods for field assessment of health related fitness for adults:
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Components of Fitness
Components of Physical Fitness in Action Jeff Angel
This video demonstrates 10 of the 11 components of physical fitness using 2 BOSUs and a medicine ball.
Motor coordination (sometimes called hand-eye coordination) is the coordinated functioning of muscles or groups of muscles in the execution of a complex task. Coordination itself, however, is a global system made up of several synergistic elements and not necessarily a singularly defined ability. Coordination is, in essence, the ability to integrate all the components of fitness so that effective movements are achieved. Rhythm, spatial orientation and the ability to react to both auditory and visual stimulus have also been identified as elements of coordination.
Motor coordination can be broken into two components: gross motor coordination and fine motor coordination. Gross motor coordination refers to gross motor skills, such as walking, running, climbing, jumping, etc. Fine motor coordination refers to fine motor skills, such as drawing, writing, typing, etc..
In reference to athletic performance, gross motor coordination may entail more complex movements than simply walking, jumping, or running. Athletic coordination is the ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a singular distinct movement.
Endurance is, simply put, the ability to endure, or an object or person's lasting quality. Thus, the longer a thing lasts, the greater the endurance. Endurance may refer to short-term--high intensity, anaerobic exercise such as sprinting--or long term, which may last hours or even days in duration, as in the case of marathons, triathlons, and ultramarathons.
In terms of fitness, endurance may be broken down into several types: aerobic endurance (cardiorespiratory endurance), anaerobic endurance, speed-endurance and strength-endurance. It is most commonly broken up into cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular endurance.
Well-trained endurance athletes are able to generate blood lactate levels that are 20-30% higher than those of untrained individuals under similar conditions. This produces significantly enhanced endurance as their muscles are better equipped to utilize it to fuel further muscular energy.
Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells. It is also sometimes referred to as aerobic endurance or aerobic fitness. Improving aerobic endurance enables the heart, lungs, and muscles to do work over a longer period of time. Cardiorespiratory conditioning can decrease risk factors associated with heart disease, increase vitality, increase maximum oxygen uptake, and can aid weight loss or maintenance.
In addition to this, training cardiorespiratory endurance improves aerobic capacity caused by fibre adaptation, more specifically an increase in the size of mitochondria, which enhances the ability of the fibres to generate aerobic energy. It also facilitates an increase in capillary density, which enhances the fibres' capacity to transport oxygen, and thus to create energy. Finally, endurance training increases the number of enzymes relevant to the Krebs cycle, a chemical process within muscles that allows the regeneration of ATP under aerobic conditions. The enzymes involved in this process may actually increase by a factor of two to three after a sustained period of endurance training.
Flexibility refers to the range of motion in a joint or group of joints, during a passive movement (passive meaning no active muscle involvement is required to hold the stretch; instead gravity or a partner provides the force for the stretch). Flexibility is a general component of physical fitness. Additionally, good range of motion will allow the body to assume more natural positions to help maintain good posture. This component becomes more important as people age and their joints stiffen up, preventing them from doing everyday tasks. Stretching is therefore an important habit to start and continue as one ages. Flexibility of a joint depends on many factors, particularly the length and looseness of the muscles and ligaments due to normal human variation, and the shape of the bones and cartilage that make up the joint. The primary reasons for increasing flexibility are enhanced performance and reduced risk of injury. The rationale for this is that a limb can move further before an injury occurs.
Power, in physics, is the "rate at which work is performed," i.e. work is the "product of force and distance" (Work = Force x Distance).  What this usually translates to is the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movement, ie. the ability of a muscular unit, or combination of muscular units, to apply maximum force in minimum time. The two components of power are strength and speed, as with power exercises. (e.g. jumping or a sprint start, snatch, clean and jerk, etc.)  Power is a vital component of motor fitness, and is applicable especially to a myriad of athletic activities, and therefore it should not be neglected. Despite the importance of power for athletics and function, the ability to produce powerful muscle contractions decreases with age, more so than other components, such as cardiorespiratory endurance. This decline also appears despite persistent training and otherwise good health.