Coopmonents of Fitness

Coopmonents of Fitness

Coopmonents of Fitness

Coopmonents of Fitness

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image for Accuracy



Main article: Accuracy

Accuracy is the ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity.

Components of Motor Fitness


image for Agility



Main article: Agility

Agility is the ability to apply explosive movements to rapidly change directions.

Components of Motor Fitness


image for Balance



Main article: Balance

Balance is the ability to exercise precise control over the body's position and movement.

Components of Motor Fitness


image for Components of Fitness

Components of Fitness

Tancred (1995)[1] believes that: One of the misconceptions in the sports world is that a sports person gets in shape by just playing or taking part in his/her chosen sport. If a stationary level of performance, consistent ability in executing a few limited skills is your goal, then engaging only in your sport will keep you there. However, if you want the utmost efficiency, consistent improvement, and balanced abilities sportsmen and women must participate in year round conditioning programs. The bottom line in sports conditioning and fitness training is stress, not mental stress, but adaptive body stress. Sportsmen and women must put their bodies under a certain amount of stress (overload) to increase physical capabilities."



Health & Fitness

The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its constitution of 1948 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".

Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of a physical task.

The Components of Fitness

Basic fitness can be classified in four main components: strength, speed, stamina and flexibility. However, exercise scientists have identified nine components that comprise the definition of fitness (Tancred 1995)[1]:

  • Strength - the extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance (e.g. holding or restraining an object or person)
  • Power - the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements. The two components of power are strength and speed. (e.g. jumping or a sprint start)
  • Agility - the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (e.g. ZigZag running or cutting movements)
  • Balance - the ability to control the body's position, either stationary (e.g. a handstand) or while moving (e.g. a gymnastics stunt)
  • Flexibility - the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e. fat or muscle (e.g. executing a leg split)
  • Local Muscle Endurance - a single muscle's ability to perform sustained work (e.g. rowing or cycling)
  • Cardiovascular Endurance - the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (e.g. running long distances)
  • Strength Endurance - a muscle's ability to perform a maximum contraction time after time (e.g. continuous explosive rebounding through an entire basketball game)
  • Co-ordination- the ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved.

Of all the nine elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation.




Physical Fitness

Physical fitness refers to the capacity of an athlete to meet the varied physical demands of their sport without reducing the athlete to a fatigued state. The components of physical fitness are (Davis 2000)[2]:

Motor Fitness

Motor Fitness refers to the ability of an athlete to perform successfully at their sport. The components of motor fitness are (Davis 2000)[2]:

Improving your condition

Identify the most important fitness components for success in your sport or event and then design sport/event specific conditioning and training programs that will enhance these fitness components and energy systems.

Conditioning Exercises

The following are examples of general conditioning exercises:

Why should I exercise on a regular basis?

Not convinced on the benefits of a regular training regime then have a read of the the benefits of exercising page.

I am new to training so what should I do?

Visit the general fitness training program page to get an insight into a simple weekly training program that will help develop your general level of fitness.

Tests for fitness components

Fitness Component Recognised Test
Agility Illinois Agility Test
Balance Standing Stork Test
Body Composition Skinfold measures
Cardiovascular Endurance Multistage Fitness Test
Flexibility Sit & Reach test
Muscular Endurance NCF Abdominal Conditioning Test
Power Standing Long Jump or Vertical Jump
Speed 30 metre Sprint
Strength Handgrip Dynamometer

In their research Suni et al. (1996)[3] found that the following tests appeared to provide acceptable reliability as methods for field assessment of health related fitness for adults:

  • Standing on one leg with eyes open for balance
  • Side-bending of the trunk for spinal flexibility
  • Modified push-ups for upper body muscular function
  • Jump and reach and one leg squat for leg muscular function








  1. TANCRED, B. (1995) Key Methods of Sports Conditioning. Athletics Coach, 29 (2), p. 19
  2. DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Training for physical fitness. In: DAVIS, B. et al. Physical Education and the study of sport. London: Harcourt Publishers, p.121-122
  3. SUNI, J. H. et al. (1996) Health-related fitness test battery for adults: aspects of reliability. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation77 (4), p. 399-405

Related References

The following references provide additional information on this topic:

  • SALTIN, B. (1969) Physiological effects of physical conditioning. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1 (1), p. 50-56
  • STRATTON, J. et al. (1991) Effects of physical conditioning on fibrinolytic variables and fibrinogen in young and old healthy adults. Circulation, 83 (5), p. 1692-1697
  • BARRY, A. et al. (1966) The effects of physical conditioning on older individuals. I. Work capacity, circulatory-respiratory function, and work electrocardiogram. Journal of gerontology, 21 (2), p. 182-191

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work then the reference for this page is:

  • MACKENZIE, B. (1997) Conditioning [WWW] Available from: [Accessed 11/3/2017]

Related Pages

The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic:


Additional Sources of Information

For further information on this topic see the following:

  • BEASHEL, P. and TAYLOR, J. (1996) Advanced Studies in Physical Education and Sport. UK: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.
  • BEASHEL, P. and TAYLOR, J. (1997) The World of Sport Examined. UK: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.
  • BIZLEY, K. (1994) Examining Physical Education. Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers
  • DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the Study of Sport. UK London: Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • GALLIGAN, F. et al. (2000) Advanced PE for Edexcel. Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers
  • McARDLE, W. et al. (2000) Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
  • BREWER, C (2005) Strength and Conditioning for games players. UK; Coachwise Business Solution.
  • CHU, D. (1996) Explosive Power and Strength. USA; Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
  • BOMPA, T. and CORNACCHIA, L. (1998) Serious Strength Training. USA; Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
  • DELAVIER, F. (2001) Strength Training Anatomy. USA; Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
  • PAULETTO, B. (1991) Strength Training for Coaches. USA; Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
  • WINCH, M. (2004) Strength Training for Athletes. UK; Stanley L. Hunt Ltd.
  • TENKE, Z. and HIGGINS, A. (1999) Medicine Ball Training. Canada; Sport Book Publishers
  • SCHOLICH, M. (1999) Circuit Training for all Sports. Canada; Sport Book Publishers



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Components of Fitness



image for Components of Physical Fitness in Action

Components of Physical Fitness in Action

Components of Physical Fitness in Action Jeff Angel

Published on Mar 15, 2014

This video demonstrates 10 of the 11 components of physical fitness using 2 BOSUs and a medicine ball.


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Main article: Coordination

Motor coordination (sometimes called hand-eye coordination) is the coordinated functioning of muscles or groups of muscles in the execution of a complex task.[16] Coordination itself, however, is a global system made up of several synergistic elements and not necessarily a singularly defined ability.[17] Coordination is, in essence, the ability to integrate all the components of fitness so that effective movements are achieved.[4] Rhythm, spatial orientation and the ability to react to both auditory and visual stimulus have also been identified as elements of coordination.[17]

Motor coordination can be broken into two components: gross motor coordination and fine motor coordination. Gross motor coordination refers to gross motor skills, such as walking, running, climbing, jumping, etc. Fine motor coordination refers to fine motor skills, such as drawing, writing, typing, etc.[18].

In reference to athletic performance, gross motor coordination may entail more complex movements than simply walking, jumping, or running. Athletic coordination is the ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a singular distinct movement.[19]

Components of Motor Fitness


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Main article: Endurance

Endurance is, simply put, the ability to endure, or an object or person's lasting quality. Thus, the longer a thing lasts, the greater the endurance. Endurance may refer to short-term--high intensity, anaerobic exercise such as sprinting--or long term, which may last hours or even days in duration, as in the case of marathonstriathlons, and ultramarathons.

In terms of fitness, endurance may be broken down into several types: aerobic endurance (cardiorespiratory endurance), anaerobic endurancespeed-endurance and strength-endurance.[5] It is most commonly broken up into cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular endurance.

Well-trained endurance athletes are able to generate blood lactate levels that are 20-30% higher than those of untrained individuals under similar conditions.[6] This produces significantly enhanced endurance as their muscles are better equipped to utilize it to fuel further muscular energy.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells.[7][8] It is also sometimes referred to as aerobic endurance or aerobic fitness. Improving aerobic endurance enables the heartlungs, and muscles to do work over a longer period of time.[9] Cardiorespiratory conditioning can decrease risk factors associated with heart disease, increase vitality, increase maximum oxygen uptake, and can aid weight loss or maintenance.[10]

In addition to this, training cardiorespiratory endurance improves aerobic capacity caused by fibre adaptation, more specifically an increase in the size of mitochondria, which enhances the ability of the fibres to generate aerobic energy. It also facilitates an increase in capillary density, which enhances the fibres' capacity to transport oxygen, and thus to create energy. Finally, endurance training increases the number of enzymes relevant to the Krebs cycle, a chemical process within muscles that allows the regeneration of ATP under aerobic conditions. The enzymes involved in this process may actually increase by a factor of two to three after a sustained period of endurance training.[6]

Muscular Endurance (Stamina)

Main article: Stamina

Muscular endurance, or stamina, is ability of body systems to process, deliver, store, and utilize energy.[11] This is also what is referred to when describing local muscular endurance.


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Main article: Flexibility

Flexibility refers to the range of motion in a joint or group of joints,[4] during a passive movement[12] (passive meaning no active muscle involvement is required to hold the stretch; instead gravity or a partner provides the force for the stretch). Flexibility is a general component of physical fitness. Additionally, good range of motion will allow the body to assume more natural positions to help maintain good posture. This component becomes more important as people age and their joints stiffen up, preventing them from doing everyday tasks. Stretching is therefore an important habit to start and continue as one ages. Flexibility of a joint depends on many factors, particularly the length and looseness of the muscles and ligaments due to normal human variation, and the shape of the bones and cartilage that make up the joint.[13] The primary reasons for increasing flexibility are enhanced performance and reduced risk of injury. The rationale for this is that a limb can move further before an injury occurs.[12]


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Main article: Power

Power, in physics, is the "rate at which work is performed," i.e. work is the "product of force and distance" (Work = Force x Distance). [20] What this usually translates to is the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movement, ie. the ability of a muscular unit, or combination of muscular units, to apply maximum force in minimum time.[21] The two components of power are strength and speed, as with power exercises. (e.g. jumping or a sprint start, snatch, clean and jerk, etc.) [22] Power is a vital component of motor fitness, and is applicable especially to a myriad of athletic activities, and therefore it should not be neglected. Despite the importance of power for athletics and function, the ability to produce powerful muscle contractions decreases with age, more so than other components, such as cardiorespiratory endurance. This decline also appears despite persistent training and otherwise good health.[23]

Components of Motor Fitness


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